Monday, August 31, 2009

An Excerpt from the Veggie Board's Vegan Bible

Trying to get the agenda set up for the upcoming year, but it appears I've snagged on a couple of stumbling blocks. I needed to catalog all of the nutrient information for the educational mission, this just was a bit tedious to put together (and it's only an excerpt). It turned out to be a rather long document, so I'm hoping that posting this here will help me kill two birds with one stone. If you have any questions, Ask me when you see me. Hopefully this will help other vegans out there who are not sure what they should be getting in their diets. Due to the lack of cooperation from our local nutritionist (that's not fair, she may be on sabbatical or something) I looked extensively at many resources. This is the minimum recommendation of what is needed daily to properly maintain a vegan diet.

PhiG's Food List of Essential Vitamins and Supplements to properly maintain a vegan diet.


The Vegan Society recommends a highly varied diet including both cooked and raw foods as the proven basis for vegan health… The starting principle for health is to eat a wide variety of plant foods, including plenty of strongly coloured vegetables and fruits. Each food has different strengths, so the fewer foods you eat the less likely it is that all your needs will be met. Vegetables and fruits provide plenty of many vital vitamins and minerals along with a host of other beneficial plant chemicals. In general, the stronger the colour the better. Dark green leaves such as kale and spring greens leave white cabbage, iceberg lettuce and cucumber in the shade… Over-processed foods that have lost much of their nutrient content or have been transformed into unnatural and harmful forms should be used sparingly, if at all. Hydrogenating vegetable oils is one of the worst forms of processing as it produces unnatural trans-fats which have an even worse effect than ordinary saturated fat in raising cholesterol and increasing heart disease risk. Hydrogenated fat is found in most fast foods, hard margarines, doughnuts and biscuits, and in some vegan sausages and burgers. Prefer unprocessed foods and products stating that there is no hydrogenated fat. Refined grains should not be a major part of a vegan diet, but whole grains are associated with many health benefits. At the same time, especially for the very old or very young, it is important not to overtax the body with more fibre than it is comfortable with: some people will fare much better with brown rice rather than wheat as a main grain as it is lower in fibre and very rarely associated with food allergies or intolerances.
In conventional nutrition, animal products are seen as a key source of protein, iron, zinc and vitamin B12, while dairy products are seen as a key source of calcium. However, zinc and iron are found in useful amounts in many whole grains, nuts, seeds and legumes and vegans are no more likely to become anaemic than anyone else. protein is found in adequate amounts in most plant foods: it is fairly low in fruit, potatoes and rice, but particularly high in legumes. With regard to calcium,100 grams of spring greens, kale, mustard greens or Chinese cabbage provide about the same amount of retained calcium as a cup of cow's milk. If you eat a lot of these vegetables, you can be confident about your bone health. If you totally avoid such vegetables, two cups of fortified soya milk (about 300 milligrams calcium per cup) would be adequate. It is probably best to use both, as each has other benefits as well as calcium: the greens provide folate, vitamin K and vitamin C and the fortified soya milk provides protein in a particularly healthful form, usually together with vitamins B12 and D. One large serving of calcium-rich dark green vegetables and a cup of fortified soya milk per day is an excellent foundation. Along with plenty of other vegetables and fruits and unrefined grains, you can be confident that such a diet is providing most nutrients in abundance, including intakes of vitamin C, vitamin K, folate, potassium and magnesium greatly exceeding most omnivorous diets.

A very few nutrients need more specific consideration to ensure optimal intakes. If you don't use fortified soya milk, you should include some other food fortified with B12 each day or take a supplement. B12 is not reliably available from modern unfortified plant foods in the amounts required for optimal health, so take no chances: use fortified foods or supplements and make sure you get at least 3 micrograms per day.
Certain other nutrients are best provided by specific plant foods:

Selenium intake can be conveniently assured by 100 grams of Brazil nuts per month. Omega-3 fatty acids can be boosted by a teaspoon of flaxseed oil (culinary linseed oil) per day. In the UK winter, the body cannot make vitamin D from sunlight and it may be beneficial for bone health to include about 5 micrograms of vitamin D2 in your daily diet. This can be obtained from about 10 grams of dried shitake mushrooms or from fortified foods or supplements.

Kelp, Brazil nuts and flaxseed oil are highly concentrated sources of nutrients, so taking more than double the suggested amount is not recommended: more is not better.

If following a raw food diet, it is vital to include a B12 supplement as no fortified foods will be consumed and B12 deficiency is common in raw food vegans not using supplements. A diet based on modern cultivated fruits (a pale shadow of the wild fruits eaten by our ape cousins) is not nutritionally adequate. At least 500 grams per day of dark green leafy vegetables or broccoli and at least 50 grams per day of nuts and seeds would need to be added to improve nutritional content.
The Vegan Food Guide Pyramid


Vitamin A

Vitamin A is found in dark green and yellow vegetables and yellow fruits, such as broccoli spinach, turnip greens, carrots, squash, sweet potatoes, pumpkin, cantaloupe, and apricots,

B complex vitamins ( B1, B2, B3, B6, B12, folate, pantothenic acid, biotin)

Many B vitamins can be found in nutritional yeast, which is supplemented with nutritional yeast (also used as a vegan cheese substitute)


Vitamin B1 or Thiamine, as it is more commonly referred to now, is one of the most important members of the B group of vitamins. Heat applied in cooking destroys this vitamin. The loss is significant when vegetables are cooked in excessive water which is thrown away afterwards. The addition of sodium carbonate(cooking soda)in some vegetables further increases the destruction of this vitamin.

Functions in the Body: Thiamine promotes growth, protects the heart muscle, and stimulates brain action. It plays an important role in the normal functioning of the entire nervous system. It aids digestion, especially of carbohydrates. It has a mild diuretic effect: that is it increases urine formation. It improves peristalsis and helps to prevent constipation. It also helps to maintain the normal red blood count, improves circulation, and promotes a healthy skin. It protects against the damaging effect of lead poisoning, and prevents edema or fluid retention in connection with heart ailments. It also reduces fatigue, increases stamina, and prevents premature ageing and senility by increasing mental alertness. Like other vitamins of the B complex group, it is more potent when combined with other B vitamins rather than used separately.

For list of foods with b1 check here:

v B2

Vitamin B2 or Riboflavin is the second member of the B complex group. Considerable loss of Riboflavin may occur if foods are exposed to light. Thus sun-drying of foods destroys most of their riboflavin content. Ordinary cooking does not affect riboflavin, but cooking in a large quantity of water causes some of this vitamin to be drained out from the food. Sulpha drugs and alcohol can destroy vitamin B2

Functions In The Body: Riboflavin is essential for growth and general health. It functions as a part of a group of enzymes whi8ch are involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and proteins. It is involved in a number of chemical reactions in the body and is therefore essential for normal tissue maintenance. Riboflavin aids digestion and helps in the functioning of the nervous system. It prevents constipation, promotes a healthy skin, nails and hair, and strengthens the mucous lining of the mouth, lips and tongue. Riboflavin also plays an important role in the health of the eyes and alleviates eye strain. This vitamin is particularly helpful in counteracting the tendency towards glaucoma. An ample supply of vitamin B2 provides vigour and helps to preserve the appearance and feeling of youth.

For list of foods with b2 check here:


Vitamin B3 or Niacin is an important vitamin of the B group. Cooking causes little actual destruction of niacin, but a considerable amount maybe lost in the cooking water. Sulphur drugs, alcohol, food-processing techniques, and sleeping pills tend to destroy this vitamin.

Functions In The Body: Niacin in important for proper blood circulation and the healthy functioning of the nervous system. It maintains the normal functions of the gastro-intestinal tract and is essential for the proper metabolism of proteins and carbohydrates. It helps to maintain a healthy skin. Niacin dilates the blood vessels and increases the flow of blood to the peripheral capillary system. This vitamin is also essential for the synthesis of sex hormones, namely estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone, as well as cortisone, thyroxin, and insulin.

For list of foods with b3 check here:


Vitamin B5 or Pantothenic Acid is a water soluble vitamin of the B complex group. It is liable to destruction by food processing techniques, caffeine, sulphur drugs, sleeping pills, and alcohol.

Functions In The Body: Pantothenic Acid is a part of the enzyme system which plays a vital role in the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and proteins, and in the synthesis of amino acids and fatty acids. It is also essential for the formation of porphyrin, the pigment portion of the hemoglobin molecule of the red blood cells. This vitamin is involved in all the vital functions of the body. It stimulates the adrenal glands and increases production of cortisone and other adrenal hormones. It is primarily used as an anti-stress factor and protects against most physical and mental stresses and toxins. Pantothenic Acid increases vitality, wards off infections, and speeds recovery from ill health. It helps in maintaining the normal growth and development of the central nervous system. This vitamin prevents premature ageing. It also provides protection against any damage caused by excessive radiation.

For list of foods with b5 check here:


Vitamin B6 or Pyridoxine is a versatile vitamin of the B complex group. Long storage, canning, food processing techniques, use of alcohol, and estrogen are destructive to this vitamin.

Functions In The Body: Pyridoxine aids in food assimilation and protein and fat metabolism, especially in the metabolism of essential fatty acids. It activates many enzymes and enzyme systems. It is involved in the production of antibodies which protect against bacterial diseases. Pyridoxine helps in the healthy functioning of the nervous system and brain. It is essential for the normal reproductive process and healthy pregnancies. This vitamin prevents nervous and skin disorders, provides protection against a high cholesterol level, certain types of heart disease, and diabetes. It prevents tooth decay. Vitamin B6 regulates the balance between sodium and potassium in the body, which is vitally important for the normal body functions. It is also required for absorption of vitamin B12 and for the production of hydrochloric acid and magnesium. Vitamin B6 is now considered as a wonder treatment for a wide range of common ailments, such as, diabetes, hemorrhoids, convulsions in infants and women, vaginal bleeding, stress and insomnia, morning sickness and travel sickness.

For list of foods with b6 check here:


Vitamin B12 is a member of the vitamin B complex. It contains cobalt, and so is also known as cobalamin. It is exclusively synthesized by bacteria and is found primarily in meat, eggs and dairy products. There has been considerable research into proposed plant sources of vitamin B12. Fermented soya products, seaweeds, and algae such as spirulina have all been suggested as containing significant B12. However, the present consensus is that any B12 present in plant foods is likely to be unavailable to humans and so these foods should not be relied upon as safe sources. Many vegan foods are supplemented with B12. Vitamin B12 is necessary for the synthesis of red blood cells, the maintenance of the nervous system, and growth and development in children. Deficiency can cause anemia. Vitamin B12 neuropathy, involving the degeneration of nerve fibers and irreversible neurological damage, can also occur.


Vitamin B12's primary functions are in the formation of red blood cells and the maintenance of a healthy nervous system. B12 is necessary for the rapid synthesis of DNA during cell division. This is especially important in tissues where cells are dividing rapidly, particularly the bone marrow tissues responsible for red blood cell formation. If B12 deficiency occurs, DNA production is disrupted and abnormal cells called megaloblasts occur. This results in anaemia. Symptoms include excessive tiredness, breathlessness, listlessness, pallor, and poor resistance to infection. Other symptoms can include a smooth, sore tongue and menstrual disorders. Anaemia may also be due to folic acid deficiency, folic acid also being necessary for DNA synthesis.

B12 is also important in maintaining the nervous system. Nerves are surrounded by an insulating fatty sheath comprised of a complex protein called myelin. B12 plays a vital role in the metabolism of fatty acids essential for the maintenance of myelin. Prolonged B12 deficiency can lead to nerve degeneration and irreversible neurological damage.

When deficiency occurs, it is more commonly linked to a failure to effectively absorb B12 from the intestine rather than a dietary deficiency. Absorption of B12 requires the secretion from the cells lining the stomach of a glycoprotein, known as intrinsic factor. The B12-intrinsic factor complex is then absorbed in the ileum (part of the small intestine) in the presence of calcium. Certain people are unable to produce intrinsic factor and the subsequent pernicious anaemia is treated with injections of B12.

Vitamin B12 can be stored in small amounts by the body. Total body store is 2-5mg in adults. Around 80% of this is stored in the liver.

Vitamin B12 is excreted in the bile and is effectively reabsorbed. This is known as enterohepatic circulation. The amount of B12 excreted in the bile can vary from 1 to 10ug (micrograms) a day. People on diets low in B12, including vegans and some vegetarians, may be obtaining more B12 from reabsorption than from dietary sources. Re-absorption is the reason it can take over 20 years for deficiency disease to develop in people changing to diets absent in B12. In comparison, if B12 deficiency is due to a failure in absorption it can take only 3 years for deficiency disease to occur.

The current nutritional consensus is that no plant foods can be relied on as a safe source of vitamin B12. Vegans are recommended to ensure their diet includes foods fortified with vitamin B12. A range of B12 fortified foods are available. These include yeast extracts, Vecon vegetable stock, fortified veggie burger mixes, textured vegetable protein, soya milks, vegetable and sunflower margarines, and breakfast cereals.

For list of foods with b12 check here:


Vitamin B9 or Folic Acid, also known as folacin or folate, is another important member of the B complex group. It maybe destroyed by some methods of cooking. Factors that damage this vitamin are sulphur drugs, sunlight and food processing.

Functions in the Body: Folic Acid in combination with vitamin B12, is essential for the formation, maturation and multiplication of red blood cells. It is necessary for the growth and division of all body cells, including nerve cells, and for manufacturing a number of nerve transmitters. It also produces nucleic acids, RNA(ribonucleic Acid) and DNA(Deoxyribonucleic Acid),that carry hereditary patterns. It aids in protein metabolism and contributes to normal growth. Folic acid helps in the building of antibodies which prevent and heal infections. It is essential for the health of the skin and hair, and helps to prevent premature greying of the hair. Folic acid is the significant important nutrient for a pregnant woman and her developing fetus. In fact, eating fresh fruits and vegetables rich in folate, from conception until the due date, is the best policy a woman can adopt to ensure that her pregnancy will be a happy and a healthy one. Folic acid also improves lactation. Large doses of folic acid has been found beneficial in the treatment of a few diseases which are rare such as, megaloblastic anemia, sprue, recurrent abortion, mental retardation, brown spots on the skin and gout.

For list of foods with folate check here:


Vitamin B8 or Biotin, is a member of the vitamin B complex group. Water, alpha drugs, estrogen, food processing techniques, alcohol can destroy this vitamin.

Functions in the Body: Biotin is vital for a healthy immune system. It is involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins and fats. It is essential for the growth and health of the hair. It prevents premature greying of hair as well as hair loss. This vitamin helps to maintain the skin and the nervous system in a sound condition. It controls proper distribution of color pigment.

For list of foods with biotin check here:

Vitamin C

• Vitamin C is an antioxidant vitamin needed for the formation of collagen to hold the cells together and for healthy teeth, gums and blood vessels; improves iron absorption and resistance to infection. Vitamin C is found in many fresh vegetables and fruits, such as broccoli, green and red peppers, collard greens, brussel sprouts, cauliflower, lemon, cabbage, pineapples, strawberries, citrus fruits.

Vitamin D

Vitamin D promotes absorption and use of calcium and phosphate for healthy bones and teeth. The skin can synthesize vitamin D if exposed to enough sunlight on a regular basis. Deficiencies can occur depending upon what you’ve stored in the liver from previous summer months. Vitamin D can be derived from fortified Soy milk, vegan margarine spread (smart balance), yeast, of other fungi during the winter months

Vitamin E

Vitamin E protects red blood cells and helps prevent destruction of vitamin A and C. Vitamin E is found in margarine and vegetable oil (soybean, corn, safflower, and cottonseed), wheat germ, green leafy vegetables.

Vitamin K

Vitamin K is necessary for normal blood clotting and synthesis of proteins found in plasma, bone, and kidneys. Vitamin K is found in spinach, lettuce, kale, cabbage, cauliflower, wheat bran, cereals, some fruits,


where Omega 3’s are usually obtained through cold-water fish and flax oil, many vegetarians don’t have the right amount of Omega 3 in their food. The disproportionate amount of Omega 6 in their diet may accumulate in the body tissues, which according to research, could lead to degenerative diseases – such as heart attack and stroke, cancer and arthritis.

Benefits of Omega 3 Fatty Acids

Other research reveals that Omega 3 fatty acids actually minimize inflammatory responses, lowering the risk factors for heart disease and cancer.

Omega 3 is necessary for cell wall manufacture and pliability; which allows for optimal intake of nutrients and oxygen, and the excretion of wastes. Omega 3 is necessary for the healthy development of nerves and eyesight.

Since Omega 3’s are highly concentrated in the brain, this helps: memory, brain performance, mood & behavior (depression, Schizophrenia, bipolar, ADHD), learning, thinking, cognition, and brain development in children.

Omega 3 also helps to treat conditions such as: diabetes, arthritis, osteoporosis, high cholesterol, hypertension, weight loss, asthma, burns, skin problems, eating disorders, nerve myelin sheathing, hormone maintenance, energy, and allergies. Vegetarians should concentrate on leafy greens, cruciferous vegetables (ie broccoli, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts, kale, cabbage, and bok choy), walnuts and spirulina to provide EPA and DHA. Hemp seeds, pumpkin seeds and sesame seeds are also good sources of ALA. Brazil nuts, wheat germ, wheat germ oil, soybean oil and canola oil.

Kelp, flax (milled flax which is also used as an egg substitute) is a good source of omega 6.



The mineral zinc is present in every part of the body and has a wide range of functions. It helps with the healing of wounds and is a vital component of many enzyme reactions. Zinc is vital for the healthy working of many of the body's systems. It is particularly important for healthy skin and is essential for a healthy immune system and resistance to infection.


Zinc has a range of functions. It plays a crucial role in growth and cell division where it is required for protein and DNA synthesis, in insulin activity, in the metabolism of the ovaries and testes, and in liver function. As a component of many enzymes, zinc is involved in the metabolism of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids and energy.

Our body contains about 2-3g of zinc. There are no specific storage sites known for zinc and so a regular supply in the diet is required. Zinc is found in all parts of our body, 60% is found in muscle, 30% in bone and about 5% in our skin. Particularly high concentrations are in the prostate gland and semen. Men need more zinc than women because male semen contains 100 times more zinc than is found in the blood. The more sexually active a man the more zinc he will require. The recommended amounts of zinc for adult men are 1/3 higher than those for women.

Good sources for vegetarians include dairy products, beans and lentils, yeast, nuts, seeds and wholegrain cereals. Pumpkin seeds provide one of the most concentrated vegetarian food sources of zinc.


Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the human body. Of the body's total calcium, about 99% is in the bones and teeth where it plays a structural role. The remaining 1% is present in body tissues and fluids where it is essential for cell metabolism, muscle contraction and nerve impulse transmission. Calcium is present in a wide range of foods. Leafy green vegetables, nuts and seeds (almonds, brazils, sesame seeds), tofu, and dried fruit are all good sources of calcium for vegetarians. Most flour is fortified with calcium carbonate so cereals can also be a good source.

Calcium balance can be affected by a range of other factors. Vitamin D is essential for absorption of calcium from the gut. This is because calcium is transported into the body by a special carrier protein which requires vitamin D for its synthesis.


Iron is an essential component of haemoglobin, transporting oxygen in the blood to all parts of the body. It also plays a vital role in many metabolic reactions. Iron deficiency can cause anaemia resulting from low levels of haemoglobin in the blood. Iron deficiency is the most widespread mineral nutritional deficiency both in Britain and worldwide.


Iron is essential for the formation of haemoglobin, the red pigment in blood. The iron in haemoglobin combines with oxygen and transports it through the blood to the body's tissues and organs. The body contains between 3.5 and 4.5g of iron, 2/3 of which is present in haemoglobin. The remainder is stored in the liver, spleen and bone-marrow. A small amount is present as myoglobin, which acts as an oxygen store in muscle tissue.

Iron deficiency can lead to anaemia. Iron stores in the body become depleted and haemoglobin synthesis is inhibited. Symptoms of anaemia include tiredness, lack of stamina, breathlessness, headaches, insomnia, loss of appetite and pallor. All these symptoms are associated with decreased oxygen supply to tissues and organs. Iron also plays an important role in the immune system, people with low iron levels having lowered resistance to infection. Research has also shown iron deficiency to be associated with impaired brain function, and iron deficiency in infants can result in impaired learning ability and behavioural problems.

Iron from vegetables in not easily absorbed in the system. Good vegetal sources of iron include, chick peas, bran flakes, spinach, backed beans, muesli, dried figs, dried apricots

Iodine (found in iodized salt, but frowned upon in this form because of the dangerous refining methods)

Sea weed (ie kelp, spirulina,)

Converts food to vitamins and meters metabolism. Low iodine intake can cause hypothyroidism leading to tiredness, skin problems, tingling sensations and elevated cholesterol. Most naturalists eat sea salt and foods free of preservatives and msg.


There are 20 amino acids that must be consumed and can be achieved by mixing a variety of proteins and whole grains. 8 of these amino acids are an essential part of the food diet because they do not naturally occur in the body. During the year I supplemented these by substituting Bragg’s liquid Amino Acids, for soy sauce in my stir fry. Food sources of amino acids can be found in seeds, dried legumes, (the preservatives in canned beans strip the beans of most of their nutritional value), tofu, tempeh, tvp, soy milk and the protein must be combined with vegetal carbohydrates in order to create the enzymes and hormones in the body that allow healthy nervous and immune functioning/ metabolism.


Fruit and berries, a mixture of whole grains ( ie rolled oats, steel cut oats, granola, wheat germ, barley, flax, etc). Root vegetables, and stalky vegetables (also a source of dietary fiber.

I also eat a lot of egg free noodles, rice noodles, vegetable based pasta, and brown rice.


Olive, sunflower, safflower, peanut, sesame, flaxseed,

Are essential but should be used sparingly to facilitate tissue repair, and the manufacture of hormones

Custom Supplements


CoQ10, or Coenzyme Q10, is also known as Ubiquinone because it is found in nearly every cell of the body. This ubiquitous and naturally occurring molecule is structurally similar to vitamin K, and is responsible for converting nutrients into energy at a very basic, fundamental cellular level (called the Kreb’s cycle).

With antioxidant levels stronger than vitamin E, CoQ10 also has anti-aging properties, aids in circulation, increases oxygen in tissues, and stimulates the immune system. Diabetes, periodontal disease, and muscular dystrophy are all diseases linked to CoQ10 deficiencies. Another area of interest for CoQ10 researchers involves this nutrient’s ability to counter histamines, often allowing those with allergies, asthma, respiratory disease, Alzheimer’s disease, and schizophrenia to experience better health when supplementing their diet with CoQ10. Other studies indicate that CoQ10 plays a role in carbohydrate metabolism and can reduce the need for insulin, making this coenzyme beneficial for diabetics

Although CoQ10’s complete functioning purpose is not known, it is thought that this coenzyme plays a significant role in aiding tissues and cells fight off infection, immune function and preventing and/or reversing age-related immune system suppression.

Although 50 percent of obese people have a CoQ10 deficiency, it is not fully understood what function CoQ10 plays in weight loss. Of particular interest to those elders suffering from heart problems, CoQ10 synthesis reduces after the age of 50, while at the same time being necessary for a healthy heart. Nutritional deficiencies, genetic defects, and cholesterol lowering drugs and beta-blockers also interfere with the synthesis of CoQ10.

CoQ10 is oil soluble, so it should be taken with an oily or fatty food. There are no known side effects to this bright yellow or dark orange coenzyme, and plant sources include peanuts and spinach. COENZYME Q10 DEFICIENCY

Normal blood and tissue levels of CoQ10 have been well established by numerous investigators around the world. Significantly decreased levels of CoQ10 have been noted in a wide variety of diseases in both animal and human studies. CoQ10 deficiency may be caused by insufficient dietary CoQ10, impairment in CoQ10 biosynthesis, excessive utilization of CoQ10 by the body, or any combination of the three. Decreased dietary intake is presumed in chronic malnutrition

There are plenty of vegetable sources of Coenzyme Q10, the richest being spinach, broccoli, peanuts, wheat germ and whole grains - in that order, although the amount is significantly smaller than that found in meats. Also, it is important to note that these foods must be raw, fresh and unprocessed - no milling, canning, preserving, freezing, etc., plus grown/produced in an unpolluted environment to be considered viable sources.

Vegetal Lithium

The orotic form of lithium is transported directly to the intracellular membranes of mitochondrial, lysosomes and the glia cells. It stabilizes the lysosomal membranes and prevents the enzyme reactions that are responsible for sodium depletion and dehydration effects of other lithium salts making it a far superior source than the pharmaceutical forms of lithium and far safer too. Lithium protects against the shrinkage of the prefrontal cortex and the reductions in glial cell density, which are otherwise seen in bipolar depression. It may provide the growth-promoting support necessary to restore, enhance, and maintain normal synaptic connectivity.

Lithium has been found to be one of the most effective treatments for manic-depressive illness (bi-polar disorder). Normally these patients are given antidepressant drugs which are known to deplete body stores of L-carnitine and Taurine. These amino acids should be supplemented using several grams daily to ameliorate the adverse side effects of these drugs.

Of course it would be better to avoid these drugs all together and that is what Lithium Orotate enables many to accomplish. This is an important consideration, especially when the therapeutic dose of lithium orotate for cases of severe depression is 150 mg/day (1-2 tablets), compared to 900-1800 mg of the prescription forms. In this dosage range, there are no adverse lithium side effects and no need for blood monitoring.

Lithium is the most effective element used for stabilizing mood swings for those with manic (bipolar) depression. Lithium orotate, a natural lithium salt of orotic acid, is 20 times more bio-active than other lithium salts and allows a reduction in dosage as well as the likelihood of potential side effects associated with prescription lithium. Lithium Orotate is also used to treat conditions including stress, manic depression, alcoholism, ADHD and ADD, aggression, PTSD, Alzheimer's and to improve memory. It has controversially been promoted as an alternative to lithium carbonate..

Vitamin B 13: known as Orotic acid plays a central role in the metabolism of folic acid and vitamin B-12, and may enhance the transportation of minerals across cell membranes. Found naturally in whey and root vegetables, such as beets, turnips, and carrots, orotic acid is easily destroyed by water and sunlight. Orotic acid can partially compensate for B12 deficiency. Good sources are root vegetables and whey.

Food Restrictions: Tree Nuts, Caffeine, Refine Sugar, (Medical Reasons)

Bleached Flour and heavy salt or Preservatives (for health reasons),


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